Apples

 

 



Contents

  • History
  • Selection
  • Storage
  • Preparation
  • Varieties
  • Nutritional Benefits

 

 

History

 

The apple can be traced back to the Romans and Egyptians who introduced them to Britain and finally to America. Today, Americans eat about 120 apples a piece each year. At least 50% of the domestic crop is used in items we use every day such as, applesauce, juice, jellies, pies and other popular desserts. (Wellness Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition, 1992).

 

 

Selection

 

Choose apples that are firm with no soft spots. Avoid apples that are discolored for their variety.

 


 

Storage

 

Keep apples in plastic bags in the refrigerator after purchasing to prevent further ripening. Apples should keep up to six weeks. However, check apples often and remove any apples that begin to decay or the others will do the same.

 

 

Preparation

 

Wash apples well with soap and rinse with water. Prepare apple dishes just before serving to minimize browning (oxidation). Protect cut apples from oxidation by dipping them into a solution of one part citrus juice and three parts water.

 

 

Varieties

There are about 2500 known varieties grown in the US. Thirty-six states grow them commercially with the following as top producers, WA, NY, MI, CA, PA, & VA. 56%of the 1999 crop was eaten as fresh fruit and 42% was processed.

Photo of Braeburn apple

Braeburn
Available Oct. through July

High flavor impact. The crisp, aromatic Braeburn blends sweetness and tartness just right for snacks and salads. Its color varies from greenish-gold with red sections to nearly solid red.
 

Photo of Golden and Red Delicious apples

Golden & Red Delicious
Available year round
Golden’s firm, white flesh retains its shape and rich, mellow flavor when baked or cooked, making it the preferred "all purpose" cooking apple. The skin is so tender and thin that it doesn't require peeling. The red is the favorite for eating.
 

Photo of Fuji apple

Fuji
Available year round Like fine wine, its flavor improves with age. Fuji's spicy, crisp sweetness makes it an excellent snack or as applesauce. Fuji varies from yellow-green with red highlights to very red.
 

Photo of Gala apple

Gala
Available August through March
Heart-shaped, distinctive yellow-orange skin with red striping. It has a crisp, sweet taste that can't be beat. Is the perfect take-along snack… anytime. Great in salads.
 

Photo of Jonagold apple

Jonagold
Available September through April

A blend of Jonathan and Golden Delicious apples, offering a unique tangy-sweet flavor. With a yellow-green base and a blush stripe. Jonagold is excellent both for eating fresh and for cooking.
 

Photo of Rome Beauty apple

Rome Beauty
Available September through July

Baker's dream, but Also a great eating apple. Smooth, blazingly bright red skin with sweet, slightly juicy flesh. Primarily cooking apples, with flavor that intensifies and becomes richer when baked or sautéed.
 

Photo of Granny Smith apple

Granny Smith
Available year round

Mouthwatering tartness. Bright green Granny with a pink blush has a crisp bite and a tangy flavor. Its tartness really comes through when baked and sautéed. Enjoy Granny Smiths out of hand or in a salad.
 

Photo of Winesap apple

Winesap
Available October through August

The apple with old-fashioned flavor. The Winesap has a spicy, tart, almost wine-like flavor that makes it the cider maker's first choice. Violet red in color, it's great as a snack and in salads.
 

Photo of McIntosh apple

McIntosh
Available October through December

McIntosh is juicy, slightly tart, yet very aromatic with white flesh and a rather tough skin that is two-toned red and green coloring. It's a favorite apple for eating, but is also widely used in salads, sauces, pies and is a mainstay in fresh cider.

 

 


Nutritional Benefits of Apples

Apples are a good source of Vitamin C and Fiber

 

Apples, raw, with skin

Refuse: 8%  (Core and stem)
Scientific Name:  Malus domestica
NDB No: 09003 (Nutrient values and weights are for edible portion)

Nutrient

Units

1 cup, quartered or chopped
-------
125g

1 cup slices
-------
110g

1 large (3-1/4" dia) (approx 2 per lb)
-------
212g

1 medium (2-3/4" dia) (approx 3 per lb)
-------
138g

1 small (2-1/2" dia) (approx 4 per lb)
-------
106g

Proximates

Water

g

106.95

94.12

181.39

118.07

90.69

Energy

kcal

65

57

110

72

55

Energy

kj

272

240

462

301

231

Protein

g

0.33

0.29

0.55

0.36

0.28

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.21

0.19

0.36

0.23

0.18

Ash

g

0.24

0.21

0.40

0.26

0.20

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

17.26

15.19

29.28

19.06

14.64

Fiber, total dietary

g

3.0

2.6

5.1

3.3

2.5

Sugars, total

g

12.99

11.43

22.03

14.34

11.01

Sucrose

g

2.59

2.28

4.39

2.86

2.19

Glucose (dextrose)

g

3.04

2.67

5.15

3.35

2.58

Fructose

g

7.38

6.49

12.51

8.14

6.25

Lactose

g

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Maltose

g

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Galactose

g

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Starch

g

0.06

0.06

0.11

0.07

0.05

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

8

7

13

8

6

Iron, Fe

mg

0.15

0.13

0.25

0.17

0.13

Magnesium, Mg

mg

6

6

11

7

5

Phosphorus, P

mg

14

12

23

15

12

Potassium, K

mg

134

118

227

148

113

Sodium, Na

mg

1

1

2

1

1

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.05

0.04

0.08

0.06

0.04

Copper, Cu

mg

0.034

0.030

0.057

0.037

0.029

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.044

0.039

0.074

0.048

0.037

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

5.8

5.1

9.8

6.3

4.9

Thiamin

mg

0.021

0.019

0.036

0.023

0.018

Riboflavin

mg

0.033

0.029

0.055

0.036

0.028

Niacin

mg

0.114

0.100

0.193

0.126

0.096

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.076

0.067

0.129

0.084

0.065

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.051

0.045

0.087

0.057

0.043

Folate, total

mcg

4

3

6

4

3

Folic acid

mcg

0

0

0

0

0

Folate, food

mcg

4

3

6

4

3

Folate, DFE

mcg_DFE

4

3

6

4

3

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Vitamin B-12, added

mcg

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Vitamin A, IU

IU

68

59

114

75

57

Vitamin A, RAE

mcg_RAE

4

3

6

4

3

Retinol

mcg

0

0

0

0

0

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)

mg

0.23

0.20

0.38

0.25

0.19

Vitamin E, added

mg

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Tocopherol, beta

mg

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Tocopherol, gamma

mg

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Tocopherol, delta

mg

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Vitamin K (phylloquinone)

mcg

2.8

2.4

4.7

3.0

2.3

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.035

0.031

0.059

0.039

0.030

4:0

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

6:0

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

8:0

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

10:0

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

12:0

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

14:0

g

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

16:0

g

0.030

0.026

0.051

0.033

0.025

18:0

g

0.004

0.003

0.006

0.004

0.003

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.009

0.008

0.015

0.010

0.007

16:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.009

0.008

0.015

0.010

0.007

20:1

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

22:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.064

0.056

0.108

0.070

0.054

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.054

0.047

0.091

0.059

0.046

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.011

0.010

0.019

0.012

0.010

18:4

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

20:4 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

20:5 n-3

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

22:5 n-3

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

22:6 n-3

g

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

0

0

0

Phytosterols

mg

15

13

25

17

13

Amino acids

Tryptophan

g

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

Threonine

g

0.007

0.007

0.013

0.008

0.006

Isoleucine

g

0.007

0.007

0.013

0.008

0.006

Leucine

g

0.016

0.014

0.028

0.018

0.014

Lysine

g

0.015

0.013

0.025

0.017

0.013

Methionine

g

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

Cystine

g

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

Phenylalanine

g

0.007

0.007

0.013

0.008

0.006

Tyrosine

g

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

Valine

g

0.015

0.013

0.025

0.017

0.013

Arginine

g

0.007

0.007

0.013

0.008

0.006

Histidine

g

0.006

0.006

0.011

0.007

0.005

Alanine

g

0.014

0.012

0.023

0.015

0.012

Aspartic acid

g

0.087

0.077

0.148

0.097

0.074

Glutamic acid

g

0.031

0.028

0.053

0.035

0.027

Glycine

g

0.011

0.010

0.019

0.012

0.010

Proline

g

0.007

0.007

0.013

0.008

0.006

Serine

g

0.013

0.011

0.021

0.014

0.011

Other

Alcohol, ethyl

g

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Caffeine

mg

0

0

0

0

0

Theobromine

mg

0

0

0

0

0

Carotene, beta

mcg

34

30

57

37

29

Carotene, alpha

mcg

0

0

0

0

0

Cryptoxanthin, beta

mcg

14

12

23

15

12

Lycopene

mcg

0

0

0

0

0

Lutein + zeaxanthin

mcg

36

32

61

40

31

USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 (2005)
 

References: