Vitamin and Mineral Digestion Taken For Granted
by: Kristy Haugen  
The body is a complex web of systems. Most are not fully aware of the complexity of
the digestive system. However, most know of its opposite, indigestion. Most do not
realize how amazing the body can be, especially the digestive tract. When the process of
digestion is described as fascinating, passing gas isn’t going to be the major focus
(flatulence), but more so the process of how gas is produced.

The digestive system’s primary role is to convert the food into substances that are
capable of being absorbed. The digestive system is comprised of the following
structures: the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and
the anus. The liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and salivary glands also play a role in
digestion but are not considered part of the alimentary canal (primary digestive organs).

Digestion begins in the mouth when food is ingested. This is a mechanical process.
Through mastication, (the biting and chewing action of the teeth) the breakdown of food
from larger particles into smaller particles takes place. This process doe not chemically
alter the food, but increases the total surface area of the food. This in turn increases the
speed and efficiency of enzyme activity. An enzyme is a protein that catalyzes, or
speeds up, a chemical reaction. Enzymes are essential to sustain life because most
chemical reactions in the body would occur too slowly, or would lead to different
products without the assistance of enzymes.

For more information on enzymes and how enzymes work, go to http://www. and click on ‘Liquid Vitamins Contain
Enzymes Because?’ article link.

Saliva also plays an important part with digestion in the mouth. Saliva is secreted by the
salivary glands which lubricates the food to facilitate swallowing. The salivary glands
begin to produce saliva in response to food; whether stimulated by smell or taste. Some
may experience a mouth watering sensation in response to a big juicy steak. Also, saliva
initiates the digestion of carbohydrates. Amylase is the digestive enzyme found in saliva
that helps with carbohydrate digestion. Once the food has been sufficiently chewed, the
tongue rolls it into a ball (bolus) and pushes it into the pharynx (the cavity that leads
from the mouth to the esophagus). Swallowing (deglutition) propels the bolus downward
into the upper esophagus using a peristaltic contraction (wavelike motion). At this time,
the epiglottis blocks the trachea (airway) to prevent food from entering the lungs and
interfering with breathing. Peristaltic contractions continue to move the bolus (food)
downwards to the lower esophageal sphincter. This is the ring of smooth muscle fibers
at the junction of the esophagus and stomach; it is also referred to as the cardiac
sphincter. When food approaches, the sphincter relaxes to allow food into the stomach.
After the food has passed through the sphincter, the muscle fibers contract to keep the
food and digestive juices from re-entering the esophagus. Heartburn results when the
cardiac sphincter relaxes and allows the digestive juices to re-enter the esophagus. When
this happens too often, the smooth muscle of the esophagus is eroded, which can cause
bleeding and persistent heartburn referred to as GERD (gastro-esophageal reflux
disease). This can become a serious condition.

The stomach is a large muscular organ; the walls are lined by a thick gastric mucosa.
The stomach is also lined by two types of glands: gastric and pyloric glands. These
glands contain mucous cells which secrete mucus that protects the stomach lining from
the harsh stomach acid (pH of 2). Chief cells located in the gastric glands secrete
pepsinogen, which is a zymogen. A zymogen is an inactive form of an enzyme. The
gastric glands also contain parietal cells which secrete hydrochloric acid. This aides in the
conversion of pepsinogen to the active enzyme pepsin, and secrete intrinsic factor which
helps to absorb vitamin B12. Hydrochloric acid is essential to kill bacteria in the food,
and to help breakdown the food into an absorbable form. The pyloric glands contain
peptic cells which also secrete the zymogen pepsinogen. Gastrin cells are located in the
pyloric glands. These cells secrete the hormone gastrin for hydrochloric acid production
in the parietal cells; and stimulate the churning of the stomach to help produce the acidic,
semi-fluid, partially digested mixture referred to as chyme. Protein digestion is initiated in
the stomach.

The chyme then empties into the small intestine by way of the pyloric sphincter. The
pyloric sphincter is the ring of smooth muscle fibers located at the joining of the stomach
and small intestine. The small intestine consists of three regions: the duodenum,
jejunum, and ileum. The bulk of digestion will be done in the duodenum. The jejunum
and ileum have a primary function of absorption.

The small intestine has the perfect anatomy for absorption. The extended length, highly
coiled structure, along with surface villi (small finger like projections), and epithelial cells
with a brush border microvilli allow for increased surface area for absorption. Nutrients
are absorbed across the epithelium villi and are carried to the bloodstream through
capillaries (small blood vessels) or lacteals (small lymph vessels that serve as extensions
of the lymphatic vessel in the villi). Goblet cells located in the small intestine secrete
mucus on the surface epithelium of the villi for protection from the digestive juices.

The pancreas releases a pancreatic juice in response to the hormone secretin that is
secreted by the duodenum. This hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted in response
to the acidity of the chyme in the small intestine. The pancreatic juice that is secreted
has an alkaline pH to neutralize the acidity of the chyme. The pancreatic juice contains
many enzymes (inactive & active) that digest carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids (fats).

The liver plays the role of secreting and synthesizing bile. Bile is a non-enzymatic
digestive fluid that is used to breakdown (emulsify) fats. The gallbladder simply stores
and concentrates the bile. Bile is made up of bile salts, bile pigments, and cholesterol.

Meals high in fat tend to spend a longer amount of time in the stomach since it takes
more time to digest. The hormone enterogastrone is released by the duodenum. This
hormone inhibits the peristalsis in the stomach, slowing the release of chyme into the
small intestine. This also gives more time for the bile to properly digest the fats.

The remaining food passes from the small intestine to the large intestine. The large
intestine consists of three parts: cecum, colon, and rectum. The large intestine plays a
smaller role of digestion, mainly to absorb any electrolytes and water that has not
already been absorbed. This process is done in the colon. Many normally harmless
bacteria colonize the large intestine, such as E. coli. E. coli is important because this type
of bacteria produces vitamin K as a byproduct. This is a good source of vitamin K. Also,
the amount of time spent in the large intestine determines the consistency of the stool. If
too little time is spent in the colon, diarrhea and dehydration result. If too much time is
spent in the colon, constipation will result.

Lastly, the stool passes into the rectum. The rectum stores the feces (stool), which
consist of unabsorbed digestive secretions (enzymes), water, undigested food (cellulose
and fiber, etc.). The anus is the opening through which wastes are eliminated. The anus
is separated from the rectum by two sphincters that regulate elimination.

The digestive process is just one extremely complex process that occurs without
question. It is often taken for granted. The complexity isn’t easy to understand. The next
time you eat a juicy steak, understand the journey the meal is sent on is much farther
than the trip to the restaurant.

Copyright 2005 Kristy Haugen

About The Author

Kristy Haugen is a mother working to finish her second bachelor degree in Chemical
Engineering. She is also a Licensed Practical Nurse with a current bachelor degree in
Biology and Chemistry. She writes to quench her thirst for knowledge. Read more
articles at

This article was posted on December 21, 2005

More Articles
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The
content on this website is not intended to diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.
©2006 Every Nutrient

Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, and More
Natural Skincare
Natural Supplements
Nut/Bean Milk Maker
Food Processors

Correct Your Acid
Alkaline Balance By
The Water You

Wheatgrass Juicers-
The Benefits of
Wheatgrass Juice

The Danger of
Eating Too Much

The Secret To
Creating Beauty
From The Inside

The Health Secrets
of Berries

The Benefits of
Maintaining Your
Body's Healthy
pH Level

Antioxidants -
Your Best Defense
Against Disease and

Feed” Your Skin
Antioxidants for A
Glowing Complexion

The Sneak Attack
of Trans-Fats

The Many Health
Benefits of Coconut

It All Starts With
Good Nutrition

Untold Nutritional

Importance of
Nutrition For
Children & Parents

Power Nutrition

Good Nutrition:
The Overlooked
Vitamin You Need
To Know About

Post Workout
Nutrition: Secrets
To A Hard, Lean

Attaining Healthy
Nutrition Habits:
How You Can Do It

Cheap and Healthy
Nutrition Plans

Are Your Nutrition
Habits Robbing You
From The Body You

The Importance of
Good Nutrition In
Keeping Your Smile
Beautiful and Your
Mouth Healthy

Top Nutritional Tips
To Support Healthy
Hair Growth

Mission Statement       Article Submissions        Contact Us       Advertise       Privacy Policy       Terms and Conditions        Links
Featured Articles
Exercise and Fitness